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Decoding IPO Vs FPO: Key Differences Unveiled

Decoding IPO Vs FPO: Key Differences Unveiled
Decoding IPO Vs FPO: Key Differences Unveiled

For companies looking to raise capital and expand their operations, going public through an Initial Public Offering (IPO) or a Follow-on Public Offering (FPO) can be an attractive option. Both IPO and FPO are methods by which companies raise funds by issuing shares to the public. However, they differ in several aspects. In this blog, we will explore the fundamental differences between IPO and FPO, shedding light on their unique characteristics and implications for investors and companies alike.

What is an IPO?

An IPO, or Initial Public Offering, marks the first time a privately held company offers its shares to the public for investment. It is typically done when a company seeks to raise significant capital to fuel expansion plans, repay debts, or fund research and development. During an IPO, the company issues new shares, and the funds raised go directly to the company.

What is an FPO?

An FPO, or Follow-on Public Offering, occurs when a publicly traded company decides to issue additional shares to the public. Unlike an IPO, where new shares are created, an FPO involves the sale of existing shares owned by the company's promoters, stakeholders, or major shareholders. The company itself does not receive any funds from the sale of these shares.


The primary purpose of an IPO is to raise capital for the company's growth and expansion plans. It provides access to a broader investor base and increases the company's visibility in the market.

On the other hand, an FPO is usually undertaken to raise additional funds for an already publicly listed company. It may be used to finance acquisitions, reduce debt, or invest in new projects.


In an IPO, the company's shares are listed on the stock exchange for the first time. It transitions from being privately held to becoming a publicly traded entity.

In the case of an FPO, the company is already listed on the stock exchange, and the additional shares are listed for trading alongside the existing ones.

Regulatory Requirements:

The regulatory requirements for an IPO and an FPO differ. An IPO involves more rigorous scrutiny and regulatory procedures, as it involves the transition from private to public ownership. FPOs, being secondary offerings, may have a comparatively streamlined process.


IPOs are typically launched when the company believes the market conditions are favorable for raising capital and when it is ready to embrace the increased public scrutiny that comes with being a public company.

FPOs can be conducted at any time after the company's initial listing, depending on its funding needs and market conditions.


In summary, an IPO and an FPO are both methods of raising capital through the public offering of shares. An IPO is undertaken by a company that is not yet publicly listed, seeking to raise funds for expansion and growth. On the other hand, an FPO is used by already listed companies to raise additional capital by selling existing shares to the public. Understanding the differences between these two offerings is crucial for investors and companies looking to capitalize on the opportunities they present. Whether you're considering investing in a newly listed company or looking to raise capital for your existing business, being well-informed about the distinctions between IPO and FPO will empower you to make sound financial decisions.